This digital presentation and its accompanying notes provide an overview on the topic of “Countering Islamophobia in Education.” The presentation covers the meaning, history, and current manifestations of Islamophobia, the impact of Islamophobia on Muslim students and their families, and ways to counter Islamophobia.
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The following is a broad overview of Islamophobia and its impact, as well as tools for countering Islamophobia and additional resources for educators. This information is to be used in conjunction with the online digital presentation. Each slide is associated with the following descriptions, which can serve as a script for those using the digital overview to present about the topic.
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Note: This presentation is the intellectual property of Islamic Networks Group (ING) and is available for non-commercial public use only. This presentation and its content cannot be displayed in exchange for payment in cash or in kind.
Slide 1: Title Slide
This presentation is titled, “Countering Islamophobia in Education.”
Slide 2: Islamophobia & Its Roots
We begin by defining Islamophobia and examining its history.
Slide 3: What is Islamophobia?
According to the Runnymede Trust in Great Britain, one of the earliest organizations to document Islamophobia, Islamophobia is defined as anti-Muslim racism, which commonly portrays Muslims and their cultures as monolithic, static, and unresponsive to change; separate, “other,” and not sharing common values with other cultures; inferior to the West; irrational, primitive, and sexist; violent, aggressive, and supportive of terrorism; engaged in a clash of civilizations; and adhering to a political ideology, not a religion. Anti-Muslim racism or bigotry is therefore seen as natural and is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and the exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.[i]
Slide 4: Roots of Islamophobia
Most people assume that Islamophobia began after 9/11. However, we find images and stereotypes of Muslims as infidels and a warring people promoted as early as the Crusades, which were a series of religious wars from the 11th to the 13th centuries that had the objective of recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
This view of Muslims was reinforced again in the 15th century with the beginning of European colonialism when a handful of European countries—primarily Britain, France, Spain and Portugal—colonized most non-European countries or regions, which continued until the 20th century. European colonizers asserted their power over colonized people by defining Europeans as smarter, more capable, and more human, and describing occupied peoples as backwards, primitive, exotic, and in need of civilizing. They also cast occupied people as enemies of Christianity and Western civilization.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, we once again see the reinforcement of these negative images of Muslims as well as the racialization of Muslims, similar to how other non-whites were depicted as barbaric, primitive, sexist, and violent. It is therefore not surprising that many people have these views after centuries of conditioning, long before 9/11, just as they have similar views of other non-white groups.
Slide 5: Islamophobia as Systemic Racism
Today Islamophobia has become systemic racism, which impacts Muslims in various institutions and in society at large. In education, textbooks and other resources often cast Muslims as antiquated and incompatible with modernity, sexist and oppressive towards women, or as violent terrorists. In literature, fiction and non-fiction books generally portray Muslims as backwards and sexist and there is a plethora of books about the problems with both Islam and Muslims.
In the media, coverage of Islam and Muslims is generally negative. A 2018 Washington Post study of tens of thousands of articles mentioning Muslims or Islam found that 78% are negative, even when not covering terrorism; other studies have shown that “news coverage of Muslims is more negative than of other minority groups.”[ii] Studies also show that terror attacks by Muslims in the US receive 3.5 times as much media coverage as attacks by non-Muslims.[iii] In Hollywood, representations of Muslims and Arabs have consistently been stereotypical as in the original Disney’s Aladdin. Video games are often based in the Middle East and popular games like Call of Duty reinforce stereotypes that Muslims are bad guys or terrorists.
Islamophobic campaigns across the country in recent years have targeted the building of new mosques. Biased government policies such as the 2017 travel ban have singled out Muslims based on a racialized view of them as all being a security threat.
Slide 6: Internalization (Implicit Bias)
These societal influences lead to the adoption of stereotypes, both good and bad about an entire group of people. Many people internalize these attitudes which can impact their subconscious beliefs and even override their professed values, as demonstrated by various studies. That means that even if people don’t believe that they are biased or racist, their subconscious beliefs causes them to behave in biased or racist ways. This is especially true in times of fear or stress.
Slide 7: Impact of Islamophobia on Muslim Students and Their Families
This section examines the impact of Islamophobia on Muslim students and their families.
Slide 8: Anti-Muslim Sentiment
While anti-Muslim sentiment increased after 9/11, it has risen even more dramatically in the last few years. According to a 2019 YouGov poll, only 15% of Americans have a favorable view of Islam, while 37% have an unfavorable view. 56% are “very concerned” or “fairly concerned” about a possible rise of extremism in Islam.[iv]
A 2017 Pew summary of reports found that 41% of Americans believe that Islam encourages violence more than other faiths and that 50% of Americans believe Islam is not part of mainstream American society.[v]
Slide 9: Impact of Islamophobia
According to a 2021 UC Berkeley report, 95% of Muslim Americans believe that Islamophobia is a problem in the United States and 94% reported that Islamophobia affects their emotional and mental well-being. Over two-thirds (68%) of those surveyed reported that they have personally experienced Islamophobia in their lifetimes. Among them, 76% reported that they experienced Islamophobia recently. The report showed higher rates of personal experience with Islamophobia for American-born Muslims (82% compared to 58% of foreign-born participants), young adults (81% of respondents ages 18–29), and women (77% compared to 57% of men). Additionally, most survey participants (88%) censor their speech or actions out of fear of how people might respond or react to them.[vi]
Slide 10: Discrimination Against Muslims
A 2022 ISPU poll found that, as in past years, Muslim Americans were the most likely group to report religious discrimination (62%), followed by Jewish Americans (52%). In comparison, 27% of Catholics, 30% of Protestants, 32% of white Evangelicals, 13% of the nonaffiliated, and 26% of the general public reported facing discrimination because of their religion.
Among those who experienced religious discrimination in the past year, 43% of Muslims reported facing it from co-workers (compared with 29% among Jewish Americans and 23% of the general public). Muslims are also more likely than the general public to experience discrimination on social media (56% of Muslims, 51% of Jews, and 45% of the general public).
Additionally, Muslims are more likely to experience religious discrimination in institutional settings such as at the airport (44% vs. 3%), when interacting with law enforcement (38% vs. 10%), when applying for a job (37% vs. 6%), and when seeking healthcare services (27% vs. 8%). In these settings, Muslim men and women were equally likely to face discrimination.[vii]
Slide 11: Bullying of Muslim Students
The 2022 IPSU poll also found that nearly half (48%) of Muslim families with school age children reported that their child faced religious-based bullying in the past year,[viii] more than double the national average(20%).[ix] Of those who were bullied, about a third of the families reported that the bullying occurred online by other students (31%), while 64% report that the bullying occurred at school by other students.[x]
According to a 2021 CAIR report about Muslim students in California, 47% of respondents reported being bullied for being Muslim. Verbal bullying often associates Muslims with terrorism using common insults such as “bomber,” “killer,” and “Allahu Akbar,” or comments such as, “Hey, gonna bomb the school?” According to the CAIR report, nearly a third (30%) of respondents who wear hijab reported having their scarf tugged or offensively touched. 35% of students reported seeing posts containing offensive comments about Islam or Muslims on social media and 30% of respondents reported that a student at school made offensive comments or posts about Islam or Muslims directly to them on social media.[xi]
Slide 12: Bias and Bigotry in Schools
Both the ISPU and CAIR surveys also reported bigotry and bullying by a teacher or another school official. According to the ISPU poll, 42% of Muslim families whose child experienced bullying said the bully was a teacher or school official at school and nearly 20% said that the bully was a teacher or school official online.[xii]
According to the CAIR report, nearly one in four respondents (23%) reported that a teacher, administrator, or another adult at their school made offensive comments about Islam or Muslims. Additionally, 20% of students felt that their teacher did not teach about Islam in a neutral, fair, or factual manner. It is not surprising that 56% of all respondents reported feeling unsafe, unwelcome, or uncomfortable at school because of their Muslim identity.[xiii]
Slide 13: Impact on Muslim Students
The impact of persistent bullying and harassment can be significant for a student and includes depression, anxiety, difficulty sleeping, and poor academic performance. It can also lead to students missing school. According to the CAIR report, nearly 20% of respondents reported missing school because they felt unsafe, unwelcome, or uncomfortable. [xiv] Muslim students describe their experiences in their own words:
- “Someone asked me if I was going to blow up the school and if I was reading a book on bombs.”
- “People. . . made fun of my religion and name. I would go home and tell my mom and cry in my room.”
- “People have verbally abused me for being Muslim, mocked me and Islam, and I have had my hijab pulled off by a classmate for no reason.”
- “[My] teacher . . . called on me to be an expert to explain horrific acts carried out by people in . . . Muslim countries I had never been to.”
- “My teacher attacked me in front of my class saying things like ‘terrorist’ and ‘you don’t belong here.’”[xv]
Slide 14: Countering Islamophobia
The following section looks at ways for teachers to counter Islamophobia.
Slide 15: Calls to Action
We suggest three strategies for countering Islamophobia. The first step is to begin with yourself by challenging your own assumptions. The second is to adopt some of the resources recommended in the presentation, especially when teaching about Muslims and their faith in the classroom. The third is to apply cultural sensitivity towards Muslim students and their families in your school or classroom.
Slide 16: Challenge Your Own Assumptions
It is essential to gain some basic knowledge about Muslims and Islam in order to challenge common misconceptions. The following are three of the most common stereotypes about Muslims.
Slide 17: Diversity of Muslims
Many people have the perception that Muslims are a monolithic group of people. On the contrary, they are extremely diverse with 2 billion Muslims worldwide living in over 50 Muslim-majority countries and as minorities across the globe.[xvi] Because they live in so many different places, Muslims are diverse in terms of their nationalities, races, languages, and cultures. In fact, like most people, religion is only one factor in a Muslim’s life among many. Additionally, Muslims, like people of other faiths, vary in how they practice their faith. Some are nominally religious, while others are moderately or very observant.
Slide 18: Muslim Women
One of the most common stereotypes is that Muslim women are oppressed. However, like women worldwide, Muslim women live varied lives, and there is great diversity in how Muslim women are viewed and treated. Many factors impact the treatment or experience of women, including their level of education, profession, socio-economic status, and the political situation in the country where they live, which varies across different Muslim-majority countries and communities. So the bottom line is that some Muslim women enjoy rights while others do not.
In terms of religious teachings, the Qur’an emphasizes the spiritual equality of men and women and affords women many rights that were progressive for their time, including the right to earn and keep their earnings and inheritance and to marry and divorce by their own choice.
Today a growing number of Muslim women worldwide are well-educated professionals, including physicians, engineers, lawyers, and businesswomen. Sixteen women have even served as heads of state in highly populated countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey, and Indonesia as well as in smaller countries.
Slide 19: Violent Extremism in the United States
While the media and other institutions convey a fear of Muslims as the greatest terror threat, data reveals otherwise. According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, there were 893 terrorist attacks and plots in the United States between 1994 and 2020 of which far-right extremists terrorists perpetrated the majority (57%), compared to 25% by far-left extremists, and 15% by religious (mainly Islamist) extremists.”[xvii]
Additionally, they found that in 2019, far-right extremists perpetrated 60% of attacks and plots in the United States and over 90% between January 1 and May 8, 2020. In 2021, far-right extremists perpetrated nearly 50%, far-left extremists perpetrated 40% and extremist Muslims perpetrated 4% of attacks and plots. Additionally, in 2021, 28 of 30 fatalities were from far-right attacks.[xviii]
In the past few years the Department of Homeland Security[xix] and other government offices have stated repeatedly that far-right extremists are the greatest terror threat in the United States.[xx]
Slide 20: Educator Resources
We will now look at some educator resources for learning and teaching about Islam, Muslims, and related subjects as well as other religious and ethnic/cultural groups.
Slide 21: Diversity Trainings for K-12 Educators
ING provides diversity trainings for educators that are delivered either by a Muslim speaker, an interreligious panel, or an interracial/intercultural panel. The trainings address the topics of unconscious bias formed by historic assumptions, the impact of this bias on marginalized communities in the form of systemic racism, and cultural competency guidelines where speakers describe what they want educators to know about them as well as best practices for interaction. The trainings conclude with calls to action to counter bias and racism.
Slide 22: Topics Addressed in Diversity Training About Muslim Students
ING’s diversity training for teachers and staff about Muslim students addresses the various challenges faced by Muslim students in the current environment, including bullying, and offers solutions to those challenges, including adopting or implementing school policies to prevent bullying. The training also covers guidelines for teaching about religion in general, as well as educational resources for teaching about Muslim history and culture in the context of world history and social studies classes.
Slide 23: Islamic Speakers Bureau Presentations
ING provides interactive presentations free of charge which supplement content standards for grades 6-12 through our Islamic Speakers Bureau, which is made up of Muslim speakers discussing their faith, history, and perspectives in the context of world history and related subjects on the following topics:
- Getting to Know Muslims Americans and Their Faith
- A History of Muslims in America
- Muslim Contributions to Civilization
- Muslim Women Beyond the Stereotypes
- Islamophobia and Its Impact
- Ramadan and Fasting
To schedule a presentation, visit: www.ing.org/presentation.
Slide 24: Interfaith Speakers Bureau Panels
ING provides interreligious panels free of charge which supplement content standards for grades 6-12 through our Interfaith Speakers Bureau which is made up of Muslims, Christians, Jews, Buddhists, and Hindus discussing their religions and perspectives on the following topics:
- Interreligious Responses to Recent SCOTUS Decisions
- Living the Faith
- Shared Values Among Faiths
- Religion and Pluralism
- Religion and Extremism
- The Abrahamic Faiths
- Women and Religion
- Peacemaking in Religion
- Separation of Church and State
- Muslim-Jewish Panel
To schedule an Interfaith Speakers Bureau panel, visit: www.ing.org/interfaith-panel.
Slide 25: Intercultural Speakers Bureau Panels
At ING, we recognize that all forms of racism and bigotry are related, and that we cannot counter Islamophobia without simultaneously countering racism and bigotry against African Americans, Indigenous Peoples, and other marginalized communities. To that end, ING offers interracial/intercultural panels free of charge which supplement content standards for grades 6-12 on countering Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, anti-Black racism, and other forms of bigotry. Panels include speakers of African, Latino/Hispanic, Indigenous, Asian, Muslim, and Jewish backgrounds discussing their histories and experiences of bigotry and racism, as well as strategies for countering them. Panel topics include:
- Countering Bullying with Knowledge, Civility, and Respect for middle schools
- Countering Bigotry and Racism through Calls to Action for high schools
- Diversity Training for Educators
To schedule an Intercultural Speakers Bureau panel, visit: www.ing.org/intercultural-panel.
Slide 26: ING’s Online Educator Curricula About Muslims
ING offers online interactive curricula to educators free of charge which supplement content standards for grades 6-12 on the following topics:
- Getting to Know Muslim Americans and Their Faith
- A History of Muslims in America
- Muslim Contributions to Civilization
- Muslim Women Beyond the Stereotypes
- Emir Abd El-Kader: A Muslim Hero for Our Time
- Multi-faith: Living the Faith and Shared Values
Each curriculum includes presentation notes, discussion questions, activities, and dozens of videos, films and film clips. To access our online curricula, visit: www.ing.org/academic.
Slide 27: Online Educator Curriculum On Countering Racism
ING offers an online educator curriculum to educators free of charge which supplements content standards for grades 6-12 on the topic of countering racism. This curriculum which consists of 14 lesson plans examines the history and origins of dominant narratives about marginalized groups, the process of racialization that leads to implicit bias and racism, and how these narratives continue to manifest in society today. The curriculum concludes with lesson plans about the power of counter narratives through the voices of the affected groups, as well as individual and collective actions for countering racism.
To access our online curriculum on countering racism, visit: www.ing.org/racism.
Slide 28: Online Presentations about Muslim Americans
Additionally, we provide other online presentations and scripts for educators and the general public on the following topics:
- Getting to Know Muslim Americans & Their Faith
- An Overview of Ramadan and Fasting
To access our online presentations and scripts, visit: www.ing.org/slideshows.
Slide 29: Online Answers to 150+ Frequently Asked Questions
ING provides online answers to over 150 frequently asked questions about Islam, Muslims, and Sharia in the United States. To access our answers to frequently asked questions, visit: www.ing.org/all-faqs.
Slide 30: Combined Resources for Educators
In addition to our online curricula, ING provides a number of other resources, including resources to teach about 9/11, Islamophobia and webinars for school educators. To access these resources, visit: www.ing.org/educator
Slide 31: Apply Cultural Sensitivity Towards Students and Parents
The next section examines how to apply cultural sensitivity towards Muslim students and their parents.
Slide 32: Parent Engagement
The involvement of parents is important for both the academic and social success of their children. Some Muslim parents, especially recent immigrants who have limited English fluency, may need extra encouragement and outreach to engage with their children’s school. Make an extra effort to encourage parents to attend back-to-school night or open house, parent-teacher conferences, volunteer opportunities in the classroom or school, and social events such as international night and science fair. Consider providing translation services if there are large numbers of non-English speakers.
Slide 33: Student Rights
Students’ religious rights are protected by the First Amendment. These include, for example, the rights to wear religiously mandated clothing and observe dietary rules. They also include the right to engage in personal worship as long as it is not disruptive or during class time. Additionally, the Equal Access Act of 1984 affirms the right of students to participate in student-initiated religious activities. These include religious clubs and even the right to inform others about their religion in an appropriate manner.
Slide 34: Other Student Rights
Other student rights include the right to an inclusive environment and protection from harm, which means ensuring both their physical safety, as well as their emotional safety from stress or harm on school premises. That means that the school must respond appropriately and in a timely fashion to any harassment or bullying, even if the perpetrator claims it was done in jest.
Slide 35: Things to Avoid
Part of creating a safe space for students includes avoiding certain words of actions. These include mocking or mistreating students for wearing hijab or other religious clothing or forbidding them to do so; disparaging a student’s name, country of origin, or religion; praising or criticizing one religion over another or suggesting that a student should convert to another religion for any reason.
It is also important to avoid using biased or inaccurate teaching materials such as stereotypical films like Not Without My Daughter, or fictional books like Shabanu to teach about Islam or other faiths, since they not only stereotype members of that faith, but create an environment where students are ashamed of their faith or humiliated because of how their faith is represented.
Additionally, avoid teaching about 9/11 in elementary schools without additional context or background about Muslims; additionally, the subject matter may not be suitable for that age group. When teaching about 9/11, ING has a lesson plan which supplements a video as well as other resources which you can access at: www.ing.org/9.11_lessons.
Slide 36: Language Considerations
While treating Muslim students as experts on their faith or faith practitioners is not appropriate for their age, Muslim parents are generally happy to answer queries about their faith if stated in a way that avoids assumptions or judgment and seeks understanding. For example:
- Instead of asking “Why do they hate us?”, ask “Help me understand why some…?”
- Instead of asking “Tell me what your people think about (x)?”, ask “What do you think about (x)?”
- Instead of asking “Why are women treated so poorly in your religion?”, ask “What does your faith say about women?” or “What is your experience as a Muslim woman?”
- Instead of asking “Is someone forcing you to wear that scarf on your head?”, ask “Why do you wear a head scarf?”
- Instead of asking “Why is there so much violence in your country?”, ask “My understanding is that your family is from (x country) and I read that there is conflict there. If so, are they impacted by the conflict?”
It is important to avoid generalizations about Islam and Muslims, since they are diverse and have varying perspectives. Similarly, Muslims Americans should not be expected to represent or be an expert on Muslims around the world.
Slide 37: Apply Cultural Sensitivity
One of best the ways to support Muslim students is to apply cultural sensitivity around common issues that impact them at school, including the following issues. Observant Muslims do not eat pork or pork by-products, including gelatin, which include kids’ favorites such as marshmallows and gummies.
Some girls wear hijab, which they don’t take off in public for reasons of modesty. Girls who wear hijab may be more likely to be targets of harassment and bullying. Also, for reasons of modesty, some students may avoid partnering with the opposite gender during a lab or other activity. In P.E. some students may request to be excused from swimming or dancing or ask to wear sweats under or instead of shorts.
Some students may ask to pray the noon prayer at school in an empty classroom or the library. During Ramadan, fasting students may request to go to the library during lunch and ask to be excused from rigorous activities in P.E. Since Muslim holidays follow a lunar calendar, they rotate around the year, so it is important to update the calendar every year. Ramadan in 2023 begins on March 23rd, and the first main holiday, Eid ul-Fitr, which follows Ramadan will be around April 21. The second main holiday Eid ul-Adha is about two months and ten days later, so it will fall during the summer this year. Students will likely be absent on these holidays, so it is advisable not to schedule tests on those days and to excuse their absences.
Slide 38: Work to Prevent Bullying
Creating an inclusive classroom environment for all students is one of the best ways to prevent bullying. It is also important to promote school wide activities that encourage tolerance and diversity, such as the Know Your Classmates program which you can learn about at: www.beyonddifferences.org.
Address prejudice and its roots in the classroom or school wide through discussions or assemblies. Have students share their own experiences with harassment and brainstorm solutions. Invite guest speakers to address stereotypes and bigotry towards their group. Exhibit sensitivity in classroom discussions about conflicts during times of crisis, such as after an act of violence or during a war. It is important to keep abreast of current events and policies relating to Muslims so that you are aware of issues that might impact Muslim students or lead to a spike in harassment or bullying. Extra diligence is warranted during a crisis situation or if students exhibit signs of stress.
Slide 39: Address Bullying When It Happens
It is critical to address bullying when it occurs in a timely manner. The first step is awareness and recognition of the problem. The second step is a zero-tolerance policy with strictly enforced and clearly enunciated consequences. The third step is to mediate bullying with all parties. If the problem persists it is important to include the parents. It is also important to acknowledge and address the personal views of teachers and staff on current events or issues. Holding staff sensitivity or cultural diversity workshops helps address stereotypes or misconceptions.
Slide 40: Schedule a Presentation
Thank you for your interest in countering Islamophobia. Feel free to write to us to request further information or to schedule a presentation, including a university level academic presentation on Islamophobia and its roots and manifestations in the United States and around the world. We also have trainings on countering Islamophobia in law enforcement, corporations, and healthcare delivery. You may email us at: [email protected]
This presentation was produced by Islamic Networks Group (ING) www.ing.org
[i] “Islamophobia: A Challenge For Us All,” Runnymede, 1997, https://www.runnymedetrust.org/publications/islamophobia-a-challenge-for-us-all.
[ii] Erik Bleich and A. Maurits van der Veen, “Newspaper coverage of Muslims is negative. And it’s not because of terrorism,” The Washington Post, December 20, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/12/20/newspaper-coverage-of-muslims-is-negative-and-its-not-because-of-terrorism/.
[iii] Erin Kearns, Allison Betus, and Anthony Lemieux, “Why Do Some Terrorist Attacks Receive More Media Attention Than Others?,” Justice Quarterly, February 4, 2020, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2928138.
[iv] Joel Rogers de Waal, “Western/MENA attitudes to religion portray a lack of faith in common values,” YouGov, February 3, 2019, https://yougov.co.uk/topics/international/articles-reports/2019/02/03/westernmena-attitudes-religion-portray-lack-faith-.
[v] Michael Lipka, “Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world,” Pew Research Center, August 9, 2017, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/08/09/muslims-and-islam-key-findings-in-the-u-s-and-around-the-world/.
[vi] Elsadig Elsheikh and Basima Sisemore, “Islamophobia through the Eyes of Muslims: Assessing Perceptions, Experiences, and Impacts,” UC Berkeley Othering & Belonging Institute, September 2021, https://belonging.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/2021-09/Islamophobia%20Through%20the%20Eyes%20of%20Muslims.pdf.
[vii] Dalia Mogahed and Erum Ikramullah, “American Muslim Poll 2022: A Politics and Pandemic Status Report,” Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, August 2022, https://www.ispu.org/american-muslim-poll-2022-full-report/.
[viii]Dalia Mogahed and Erum Ikramullah, “American Muslim Poll 2022, 32.
[ix] “Facts About Bullying,” Stopbullying.gov
[x] Dalia Mogahed and Erum Ikramullah, “American Muslim Poll 2022, 33
[xi] “Examining Islamophobia in California Schools,” CAIR California, October 2021, https://static.ca.cair.com/reports/islamophobia/downloads/cair-ca-bullying-report-2021.pdf.
[xii] Dalia Mogahed and Erum Ikramullah, “American Muslim Poll 2022, 33.
[xiii] “Examining Islamophobia in California Schools,” CAIR California, October 2021.
[xiv] “Examining Islamophobia in California Schools,” CAIR California, October 2021.
[xv] “Singled Out: Islamophobia in the Classroom and the Impact of Discrimination on Muslim Students,” CAIR California, October 16, 2019, https://ca.cair.com/sacval/wp-content/uploads/sites/9/2019/10/Anti-Bully-Report_2019.pdf?x62983.
[xvi] “Muslim Population by Country 2023,” World Population Review, https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/muslim-population-by-country.
[xvii] Seth G. Jones, Catrina Doxsee, Nicholas Harrington, “The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 17, 2020, https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states.
[xviii] Catrina Doxsee, Seth G. Jones, Jared Thompson, Kateryna Halstead, Grace Hwang, “Pushed to Extremes: Domestic Terrorism amid Polarization and Protest,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, May 17, 2022, https://www.csis.org/analysis/pushed-extremes-domestic-terrorism-amid-polarization-and-protest.
[xix] “Homeland Threat Assessment,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, October, 2020, 18, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/2020_10_06_homeland-threat-assessment.pdf.
[xx] “S.894 – Domestic Terrorism Prevention Act of 2019,” https://www.congress.gov/116/bills/s894/BILLS-116s894is.xml.